White scars can appear on the skin for several reasons. They are the result of damage to the skin that has caused a discoloration of the skin or a loss of pigment. These white scars can come in various shapes and sizes and are most notably the residual effects of acne
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. White scars can be treated through simple topical methods at home and through more serious–though still safe–methods in a dermatologist’s office.
Apply aloe vera gel to a scar–particularly a freshly developed one–to diminish its visibility and eliminate it altogether. According to DailyGlow.com, this gel should be applied at least twice daily for maximum benefit.
Apply natural treatments to your scar to restore its health. Honey is an antibiotic recommended by experts an effective remedy for scarring, according to DailyGlow.com
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. To treat skin, it is recommended that you purchase medicinal honey, rather than the standard edible honey found in grocery stores. The honey should be massaged into the scar and left on for 30 minutes or more for maximum benefit. Lemon juice is another remedy found naturally. It is high in vitamin C, which is a staple vitamin of your skin’s health. Lemon juice can be applied to the skin on its own or mixed into rose water, then dabbed onto the skin several times throughout the day to reduce the visibility of your white scars.
Place vitamin E oil onto scars on the skin. This vitamin is a strong antioxidant frequently found in capsule form. If you cannot find vitamin E oil on its own, purchase the capsules and prick them with a needle to squeeze the oil onto the skin, or use a cream or other skin oil containing vitamin E. Apply vitamin E to scars three times daily to slowly fade them out.
Visit your dermatologist to discuss various treatment options that can be administered in a medical setting. Multiple possibilities exist, such as the use of microdermabrasion, which wears away a tiny part of the skin and enables new skin cells to develop and cover the old scarring area. Chemical peels are also purported to treat scarring on the skin, and laser treatments are commonly used to correct abnormalities in skin pigment. When factoring in the size and severity of your scar and the cost of the different alternatives, your dermatologist should be able to provide you with an effective and attainable solution to your white scars.
Cross training simply refers to participation in a variety of workouts or training regimens in addition to your specialty
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. Cross-training shoes, then, must provide support during activities such as jogging, bicycling, weightlifting and sprinting
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. If you have knee or other joint problems, be careful to choose shoes that can properly protect and support you. Check with your doctor or therapist to confirm that your shoe selection is sufficient for your needs.
More than anything else, cross-training shoes need to provide support and cushion for your body. If you have knee problems, seek help from a specialist to determine if you supinate, which is leaning out with the foot, or pronate, which is rolling the foot inward. Finding this out will help you determine how much and what type of arch support you need for your cross-training shoes.
The women’s New Balance 1225 cross training shoe is ideal for women of average weight. The arch support and extra cushion can be particularly beneficial for women who over pronate. They are lightweight and perfect for dancing or aerobics classes, as well as for more intense, high-impact exercises.
If you tend to have severe knee pain, choose a cross-training shoe geared specifically to support the impacted joints. Orthaheel shoes were invented by a podiatrist. The Orthaheel Women’s Action X-Trainer can provide impressive support during a wide range of workout types.
A lot of knee pain in women is caused or aggravated by the constant shock of intense movements. Wearing the ASICS GEL-Fluent TR 2 means that each step is cushioned with a scientifically formulated gel that absorbs much of this shock, helping relieve knee pain.
The Nike Women’s Free Trainer 7.0.IV is primarily designed for women who routinely do cross training that is lower impact or involves lots of lateral movements. It is an extremely lightweight shoe that provides enough support for problematic knees without slowing you down.
The ProForm CR610 is an treadmill model that is no longer manufactured as of 2013, though you may still find used models for sale. It has several advanced features and folds up to save space when you are not using it. Make sure the unit is in good working condition before taking it home and setting it up.
The CR610 can handle loads up to 250 pounds
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. Do not use this machine if you weigh more than this. The maximum speed is 10 mph and the incline adjusts in half-percent increments. You have the option of controlling the speed and incline manually or choosing one of 6 included personal trainer programs that automatically adjust the speed and incline for you. Use the buttons on the console to change the speed and incline of the walking belt manually.
Shin and ankle pain may put a damper on your aerobic activities. Improper footwear, frequently wearing high heels and poor posture have an adverse effect on the lower leg anatomy. Physical therapists use the heel walking exercise as a diagnostic tool for gait disorders and as a rehabilitation exercise for lower leg injuries and muscle imbalances
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The heel walking exercise requires you to stand in an upright position, lift your toes from the floor and walk around the room without flattening your feet. Some physical therapists progress the exercise by having the patient begin with a heel strike and then roll the rest of the foot toward the floor or sidewalk.
The tibialis is the long muscle that supports your shin. Dorsi flexing your feet, or curling your toes toward your shins, activates this muscle group. Orthopedic specialists on the Rehabmanual website explain that people with weak ankle dorsiflexors will slap their foot down instead of allowing it to land smoothly. Heel walking balances the dorsiflexors with the plantar flexors, which are the muscles that point your toes toward the floor.
Women who frequently walk in high heels adapt a toe-to-heel walking stance, which weakens the lower leg muscles. This walking pattern may even affect your pelvic alignment and cause back problems, reports M.E. Franklin, lead author of a 1995 study published in the “Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy.” Minimizing time in high heels, and correcting the lower leg imbalance by performing the heel walking exercise, may correct the problem.
Heel walking may also benefit performance in certain sports. Skiers, for example, require strong tibialis muscles and ankle dorsiflexors. If these muscles are weak, the skier will shift her weight toward the tail of the ski, which is less efficient. Breckenridge Colorado boot fitter Jeff Bergeron advises that foot beds and boot alignment will correct a skier’s stance, but the boot adjustments will be more effective if the skier corrects his lower leg muscular imbalances. High-impact aerobics instructors sometimes use the heel walk in the cool-down segment of their classes as a means of balancing the lower leg muscles and preventing shin splints.
A heel-first walking gait is more efficient, reports C. B. Cunningham, lead author of a 2010 study published in the “Journal of Experimental Biology.” Cunningham and his team found the walking with a slightly raised heel increased the energetic cost of transport by 53 percent; reduced energy exchange from the center of mass to the lower leg muscles; increased ground reaction forces; and increased ankle, knee, hip and back extensor muscle recruitment. The research team concluded that heel-to-toe walking is more efficient than toe-to-heel walking.
Increasing the energetic cost of recruitment means that you are exerting more energy to perform less work. Energy is generated from your center of mass, usually located 2 inches below your navel. A toe-heel stance affects pelvic alignment and, thus, impedes energy generation. Increased ground reaction forces increase the impact of the activity and may lead to injury. Injury-prone people often have imbalances between their flexion and extension muscle groups. The quadriceps are stronger than the hamstrings, the plantar flexors are stronger than the dorsiflexiors, and the lower back muscles are stronger than the abdominal muscles. If toe-to-heel walking, as indicated by Cunningham and his team, contributes to these imbalances, the heel walking exercise provides a potential solution.
The gastrocnemius and the soleus are the two muscles that comprise your calf
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. The larger, visible muscle is the gastrocnemius, which raises your heel off the floor and works with your hamstrings to flex your knee and bring your heel toward your glute. The soleus is the smaller calf muscle, and is situated under the gastrocnemius. The soleus raises your heel off the floor when you¡¯re seated and your knee is bent at a 90-degree angle.
Seated calf raises are the only exercise that specifically target your soleus muscles. While the soleus is involved in a number of other calf and leg exercises, your knees must be bent at a 90-degree angle to fully recruit them without assistance from the gastrocnemius. Sit on the edge of a firm surface with the balls of your feet on a 6- to 8-inch platform. Your knees should be aligned over your toes. Hold a pair of dumbbells, a barbell or a weight plate on your quadriceps just above your knees. Lower your heels toward the floor, stretching your calves and the arches of your feet. Press your knees upward, driving your heels above the platform as high as you can. Lower with control and repeat.
The movement you perform in this exercise is very similar to pressing your car’s accelerator or brake. Seated calf extensions target your soleus, but your gastrocnemius acts as a synergist, providing assistance. You can perform it on a calf extension machine or a combination calf extension/leg press machine. Move the seat close to the foot pedals so the bend in your knees comes as close to 90 degrees as possible when seated. Place your feet firmly on the pedals and grasp the handles below the seat. Keeping your feet fully connected to the pedals, press your toes away from your shins, extending through your ankles. Release with control, bringing your toes toward your shins to stretch your calves.
This basic stretch targets the soleus because, much like soleus-strengthening exercises, the knee of the leg you¡¯re stretching is bent. Sit on the floor with both legs extended straight out. Draw one heel in toward your body, and then relax that knee out to the side so the sole of your foot is tucked toward your opposite thigh. Bend your other knee, drawing your heel in toward your glute with your toes raised in the air. Grasp the ball of your foot and gently pull your toes toward your shin. Hold the stretch for 30 seconds
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, and repeat on the other side.
Stretching your calves on the stairs is an advanced movement that you can easily overdo if you¡¯re not careful. This stretch requires a split stance on the stairs, with your lead leg offering support as you stretch your back leg. Place the toes and ball of your back foot on the first step up from the floor. Place your other foot two or three steps higher, depending on your leg length. The thigh of your lead leg should be parallel to the floor. Use the wall to steady yourself as you bend the knee of your back leg and simultaneously drop your heel toward the floor. Hold it for 30 seconds and switch sides.
Meniscal tears are commonly occurring knee injuries. Menisci are the wedge-shaped cartilage pieces that act as shock absorbers in your knee. Treatment depends on the type of meniscus tear you have and how severe it is. Many meniscal tears cannot heal because they don’t get enough of a blood supply but tears that occur in the outside one-third of your meniscus do have a rich blood supply. Strengthening muscles can help prevent secondary effects of a torn meniscus such as knee buckling and pain. Your doctor and physical therapist will design your treatment plan depending on whether or not you need surgery, the severity of your lateral meniscus tear and factors such as your age, fitness level and weight.
Gentle exercises such as aquatic exercises or swimming and walking can help strengthen leg muscles without causing too much injury. Avoid twisting the knee or engaging in high-impact aerobics when you have a knee injury. Muscle strengthening exercises include riding a stationary bike, straightening and raising the leg, extending the leg while sitting and pool exercises.
Your quadriceps muscle is very involved in your knee flexibility and stability. Strengthening exercises for your quads will help support healing of your lateral meniscus tear. Sit on the floor with your injured leg straight out in front of you, tighten your thigh muscles and hold them for about six seconds. Release and rest for 10 seconds. Repeat this exercise eight to 12 times several times a day. Don’t overly straighten the knee; you may place a rolled towel under your knee for added support.
Leg raises strengthen the muscles above your knee, at the back of your thigh and those of your buttocks and hips and can stabilize your knee after a meniscal tear. Try front and back leg raises. Lie on your back with your good knee bent and your injured leg straight. Tighten your thigh muscles by attempting to press your injured knee to the floor and hold muscles tight as you lift your heel about a foot off the floor. Hold for five seconds and lower slowly. Repeat eight to 12 times. Lie on your stomach with both legs straight. Attempt to lift your injured leg up behind you so that your toes are about 6 inches away from the floor. Hold for five seconds and lower your leg slowly. Repeat eight to 12 times.
Lie on your stomach with your legs straight. Place a rolled-up towel under your leg just above the kneecap if this is uncomfortable. Bend your knee and bring the heel of your injured leg towards your buttocks. You may also add a 1- to 5-pound weight to your ankle to reduce the distance you must lift your leg to work out your hamstrings.
To strengthen calf muscles, stand with your feet a few inches apart and rest your hands on a counter
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, table or back of a chair. Raise your heels off the floor while keeping your knees straight. Hold for six seconds and slowly lower your heels to the floor. Repeat eight to 12 times several times a day. Heel digs work your hamstring muscles and those of your hips. Lie on your back with both knees bent. Bend your ankles so that your heels are digging into the floor. Push on your heels and squeeze your buttocks together. Lift your hips off the floor until they are level with your shoulders and knees. Hold for six seconds and slowly lower your body. Rest for 10 seconds and repeat eight to 12 times. Quit this exercise if it causes you pain.
A final muscle strengthening exercise for a lateral meniscus tear involves knee bends. Only attempt this exercise if you are experiencing little pain from your knee injury. Stand with your feet apart so that they line up with your shoulders
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. Rest your hands on a countertop, table or back of a chair. Slowly bend your knees so that you are squatting with your feet flat. Keep your knees in line with your toes. Lower yourself about 6 inches and rise slowly back to standing. Repeat eight to 12 times.
Fluid on the elbow is known as elbow bursitis or olecranon bursitis. This condition is the result of fluid accumulating in the bursa, which is a saclike structure located at the point behind the elbow. This sac allows smooth movement in the elbow, making it easier to pick up, throw and hold objects. When the sac becomes inflamed, it may be necessary to seek treatment for the elbow bursitis.
Because fluid accumulation in the elbow bursa is responsible for the inflammation and pain of bursitis, it may become necessary to drain the fluid. Dr. Jacob D. Rozbruch, an orthopedic surgeon from New York, describes the drainage procedure as the insertion of a needle to drain fluid from the bursa. If no signs of infection are found during the procedure
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, cortisone is given to control the inflammation and ease the pain of this condition.
PDR Health indicates that the R.I.C.E. method of injury treatment can be used to relieve the pain and inflammation of olecranon bursitis. This acronym stands for rest, ice, compression and elevation. Rest the elbow whenever possible to reduce swelling and avoid the progression of bursitis. Put an ice pack on your elbow for 15 to 20 minutes at a time, three to four times per day. This ice pack should be covered with a towel or pad to prevent injury to the skin. Compression may be used to prevent swelling, but should be used carefully to prevent cutoff of the oxygen supply to the fingers. Elevate your arm above the level of your heart by propping it up on a pillow or pile of blankets.
Physical therapy is used to treat the pain of elbow bursitis. Exercises performed during physical therapy strengthen the elbow and make it possible to have a wider range of motion. Physical therapists can also use ultrasound to improve blood flow to the area of fluid accumulation. This provides deep heat that can ease inflammation. Ultrasound can also be used to activate cortisone cream that has been applied to areas of pain and inflammation caused by bursitis.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be used to control the pain and inflammation of the bursa. These drugs can be purchased without a prescription but should not be used without consulting a medical professional. NSAIDs increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and may also be dangerous for people who have reduced kidney function. When using NSAIDs to treat bursitis, follow all of your doctor’s instructions carefully and read all package instructions to avoid adverse side effects and overdose. Examples of NSAIDs include ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen.
Cortisone injections are used to treat the inflammation of bursitis and provide long-term relief of pain caused by the condition. According to the Rothman Institute, the cortisone suppresses the body’s inflammatory response, which leads to reduced pain. While these injections are effective at reducing inflammation, they are not without risks. Nerve damage, bone death, joint infection, weakened tendons, bone thinning, skin thinning and whitening of the skin around the site of the injection are possible risks of cortisone injections.
Milia are small harmless white skin bumps that most often occur across the nose, cheeks and chin, but can appear anywhere on the body. Infants are most prone to milia, but children and adults can also be affected, with older women having a higher occurrence of milia than other adults.
Milia resemble tiny whiteheads, but unlike whiteheads, they usually aren’t surrounded by red or inflamed tissue. Milia are usually painless
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, but can become irritated by rough clothing.
Milia occur when dead skin cells become trapped under an outer layer of skin and then form small cysts, walled off from the surrounding tissue, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Milia most often occur when the skin isn’t able to effectively exfoliate, or slough off, dead cells. Heavy moisturizers, creams, cleansers, suntan lotions and hair-care products can trap dead skin cells, causing milia. Heavy sun exposure can cause thicker skin, which is more prone to milia. Porphyria cutanea tarda, a dermatological condition characterized by skin blistering and excessive hair growth on the face and hands, can also cause milia.
Infant milia does not require treatment and will usually disappear within weeks after birth, according to MayoClinic.com. Adult milia can be quickly removed in a dermatologist’s office. The physician will first clean your skin with an alcohol swab or other antiseptic and then pierce the skin covering the milium with a sterile needle. At that point he will use a comedone extractor to apply pressure to the surrounding tissue, causing the cyst to pop to the surface of your skin.
There is no way to prevent infant milia. Reducing sun exposure may limit future milia. Switching to noncomedogenic or oil-free skin products, using retinol creams, using home exfoliating products and regularly visiting your dermatologist for microdermabrasions or glycolic acid peels may help you prevent milia, but if you are highly prone to the condition, these techniques are likely only to reduce the number of milia you form, not prevent them entirely.
Because of the risk of infection from non-sterile tools, adults should not try to self-remove milia at home, especially in sensitive areas like the eyelids.
There are several reasons your hands might hurt when lifting weights. This is particularly true if you are just beginning weight training or are switching from using weightlifting gloves to not using them. Most of these potential hand hurting issues are easily fixed; however, some conditions may require you to seek a medical opinion from your doctor.
Many weightlifting barbells and dumbbells have what is called knurling on the bar. Knurling is a slip-resistant etching in area of the bar where your hands are supposed to be positioned. The knurling serves to prevent the bar from slipping out of your hands while lifting. This prevents others and yourself from getting hurt because it prevents the weight from dropping. Unfortunately, what gives the knurling its grip can cause it to tear the skin on the pads at the base of each finger. The friction from the bar pulls the skin. To see if this is an issue, check this area on your hands for bleeding, redness or skin tears. Over time, your body will develop calluses to prevent this from hurting; however, if you want your skin to remain smooth, you should wear weightlifting gloves.
Another reason your hands might hurt is that the blood pressure in your hands is high. Gripping barbells and dumbbells causes an isometric, or non-moving, contracting of the muscles in your forearm and hand to keep the weights in your hands. This type of contraction can block regular blood flow into and out of the hand, which increases the blood pressure in the hand. Often, this is caused by simply gripping the bar to hard. You want to be able to hold the bar just enough to keep it from slipping out of your hands. Try loosening your grip to see if this helps. You can also wear weightlifting gloves to help because you will need less force to hold onto the bar to keep the weight from falling out of your hands. Another possible reason this may occur is that your overall blood pressure is too high. You should talk with your doctor to rule this out as a possibility, and to be sure that weightlifting in general is safe for you.
As your workout progresses
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, the muscles in your hands and forearms get tired from holding onto the weights. The pain you are feeling in your hands may be the muscles fatiguing to the point of failure
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. This pain is typically felt as a burning sensation in the forearms and hands. Those who are new to weight training or have recently started working out without gloves are the most likely candidates for this. The more you work out, the more these muscles will be trained and the less likely you will experience hand pain for this reason. You can also use weightlifting gloves to help; however, you will limit gains in your grip strength if you use gloves.
The final reason for your hands hurting during weight training could be arthritis in your hands. As you age, or if you¡¯ve had traumatic injury to your hands, the cartilage in your joints begins to break down. Cartilage reduces the shock felt in a joint, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons explains, and this loss in cartilage increases the impact the weight on your hands will have. You should consult with your doctor to rule out this possibility if you have ruled out the other three factors. Doctors may prescribe anti-inflammatory medicine or use other measures to combat arthritis.
Although the muscles in the toes are tiny and delicate, they can produce intense pain when they are riddled with cramps. Often developing quite suddenly, toe cramps can make even the simplest activity painful. Preventing toe cramps involves understanding of proper footwear
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, dietary guidelines and exercise recommendations.
Wear shoes that are loose in the toe box. Before purchasing shoes, try them on and make sure you have enough room to wiggle your toes comfortably. Tight shoes restrict blood circulation to your feet and toes. As a result, your toes often do not receive the circulation they need for proper functioning.
Remove high heels every few hours to stretch your toes. Even if your high-heeled shoes have a roomy toe box, the steep angle of the shoe still interrupts blood flow to your toes, which can cause muscle cramps in the toes.
Ensure your body receives enough calcium, magnesium and potassium every day. These vital nutrients are essential for healthy muscle functioning. Deficiencies of all three nutrients have been linked to muscle cramps. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, adults should aim for at least 1,000 mg of calcium and 4.7 g of potassium per day. Men should intake roughly 400 to 420 mg of magnesium per day, while women need 310 to 320 mg per day.
Stay hydrated throughout the day, especially while exercising with a reusable bottle of water. As with nutrient deficiencies, a deficiency of water also increases your risk for muscle cramps.
Massage your toes regularly throughout the day. If you suffer from toe cramps consistently, remove your shoes to massage your toes every few hours. If you only suffer from toe cramps periodically, simply massage your toes every morning and night. Massaging the toes increases blood circulation to the area.
Exercise your toes at least once per day to stretch and strengthen the delicate muscles in and around the toes. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society recommends a wide variety of toe exercises to keep your feet healthy and free from cramps
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. These exercises include to raises, toe curls and pointing the toe for five seconds at a time. Using your toes to pick up towels or marbles on the floor also can help strengthen the toes.